第 41 节
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  Lastly; Professor Hering himself has never that I know of touched
  his own theory since the single short address read in 1870; and
  translated by me in 1881。  Every one; even its originator; except
  myself; seems afraid to open his mouth about it。  Of course the
  inference suggests itself that other people have more sense than I
  have。  I readily admit it; but why have so many of our leaders shown
  such a strong hankering after the theory; if there is nothing in it?
  The deadlock that I have pointed out as existing in Darwinism will;
  I doubt not; lead ere long to a consideration of Professor Hering's
  theory。  English biologists are little likely to find Weismann
  satisfactory for long; and if he breaks down there is nothing left
  for them but Lamarck; supplemented by the important and elucidatory
  corollary on his theory proposed by Professor Hering。  When the time
  arrives for this to obtain a hearing it will be confirmed;
  doubtless; by arguments clearer and more forcible than any I have
  been able to adduce; I shall then be delighted to resign the
  championship which till then I shall continue; as for some years
  past; to have much pleasure in sustaining。  Heretofore my
  satisfaction has mainly lain in the fact that more of our prominent
  men of science have seemed anxious to claim the theory than to
  refute it; in the confidence thus engendered I leave it to any
  fuller consideration which the outline I have above given may
  incline the reader to bestow upon it。
  {1}  Published in the Universal Review; July 1888。
  {2}  Published in the Universal Review; December 1890。
  {3}  Published in the Universal Review; May 1889。  As I have several
  times been asked if the letters here reprinted were not fabricated
  by Butler himself; I take this opportunity of stating that they are
  authentic in every particular; and that the originals are now in my
  possession。R。 A。 S。
  {4}  An address delivered at the Somerville Club; February 27; 1895。
  {5}  〃The Foundations of Belief;〃 by the Right Hon。 A。 J。 Balfour。
  Longmans; 1895; p。 48。
  {6}  Published in the Universal Review; November 1888。
  {7}  Since this essay was written it has been ascertained by
  Cavaliere Francesco Negri; of Casale Monferrato; that Tabachetti
  died in 1615。  If; therefore; the Sanctuary of Montrigone was not
  founded until 1631; it is plain that Tabachetti cannot have worked
  there。  All the latest discoveries about Tabachetti's career will be
  found in Cavaliere Negri's pamphlet 〃Il Santuario di Crea〃
  (Alessandria; 1902)。  See also note on p。 154。R。 A。 S。
  {8}  Published in the Universal Review; December 1889。
  {9}  Longmans & Co。; 1890。
  {10}  Longmans & Co。; 1890。
  {11}  Published in the Universal Review; November 1890。
  {12}  Longmans & Co。; 1890。
  {13}  M。 Ruppen's words run:  〃1687 wurde die Kapelle zur hohen
  Stiege gebaut; 1747 durch Zusatz vergrossert und 1755 mit Orgeln
  ausgestattet。  Anton Ruppen; ein geschickter Steinhauer mid
  Maurermeister leitete den Kapellebau; und machte darin das kleinere
  Altarlein。  Bei der hohen Stiege war fruher kein Gebetshauslein; nur
  ein wunderthatiges Bildlein der Mutter Gottes stand da in einer
  Mauer vor dem fromme Hirten und viel andachtiges Volk unter freiem
  Himmel beteten。
  〃1709 wurden die kleinen Kapellelein die 15 Geheimnisse des Psalters
  vorstelland auf dem Wege zur hohen Stiege gebaut。  Jeder Haushalter
  des Viertels Fee ubernahm den Bau eines dieser Geheimnisskapellen;
  und ein besonderer Gutthater dieser frommen Unternehmung war
  Heinrich Andenmatten; nachher Bruder der Geselischaft Jesu。〃
  {14}  The story of Tabachetti's incarceration is very doubtful。
  Cavaliere F。 Negri; to whose book on Tabachetti and his work at Crea
  I have already referred the reader; does not mention it。  Tabachetti
  left his native Dinant in 1585; and from that date until his death
  in 1615 he appears to have worked chiefly at Varallo and Crea。
  There is a document in existence stating that in 1588 he executed a
  statue for the hermitage of S。 Rocco; at Crea; which; if it is to be
  relied on; disposes both of the incarceration and of the visit to
  Saas。  It is possible; however; that the date is 1598; in which case
  Butler's theory of the visit to Saas may hold good。  In 1590
  Tabachetti was certainly at Varallo; and again in 1594; 1599; and
  1602。  He died in 1615; possibly during a visit to Varallo; though
  his home at that time was Costigliole; near Asti。R。 A。 S。
  {15}  This is thus chronicled by M。 Ruppen:  〃1589 den 9 September
  war eine Wassergrosse; die viel Schaden verursachte。  Die
  Thalstrasse; die von den Steinmatten an bis zur Kirche am Ufer der
  Visp lag; wurde ganz zerstort。  Man ward gezwungen eine neue Strasse
  in einiger Entfernung vom Wasser durch einen alten Fussweg
  auszuhauen welche vier und einerhalben Viertel der Klafter; oder 6
  Schuh und 9 Zoll breit soilte。〃  (p。 43)。
  {16}  A lecture delivered at the Working Men's College in Great
  Ormond Street; March 15; 1890; rewritten and delivered again at the
  Somerville Club; February 13; 1894。
  {17}  〃Correlation of Forces〃:  Longmans; 1874; p。 15。
  {18}  〃Three Lectures on the Science of Language;〃 Longmans; 1889;
  p。 4。
  {19}  〃Science of Thought;〃 Longmans; 1887; p。 9。
  {20}  Published in the Universal Review; April; May; and June 1890。
  {21}  〃Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle;〃 iii。 p。 237。
  {22}  〃Luck; or Cunning; as the main means of Organic Modification?〃
  (Longmans); pp。 179; 180。
  {23}  Journals of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society (Zoology;
  vol。 iii。); 1859; p。 61。
  {24}  〃Darwinism〃 (Macmillan; 1889); p。 129。
  {25}  Longmans; 1890; p。 376。
  {26}  See Nature; March 6; 1890。
  {27}  〃Origin of Species;〃 sixth edition; 1888; vol。 i。 p。 168。
  {28}  〃Origin of Species;〃 sixth edition; 1888; vol。 ii。 p。 261。
  {29}  Mr。 J。 T。 Cunningham; of the Marine Biological Laboratory;
  Plymouth; has called my attention to the fact that I have ascribed
  to Professor Ray Lankester a criticism on Mr。 Wallace's remarks upon
  the eyes of certain fiat…fish; which Professor Ray Lankester was; in
  reality; only adoptingwith full acknowledgmentfrom Mr。
  Cunningham。  Mr。 Cunningham has left it to me whether to correct my
  omission publicly or not; but he would so plainly prefer my doing so
  that I consider myself bound to insert this note。  Curiously enough
  I find that in my book 〃Evolution Old and New;〃 I gave what Lamarck
  actually said upon the eyes of flat…fish; and having been led to
  return to the subject; I may as well quote his words。  He wrote:…
  〃Needalways occasioned by the circumstances in which an animal is
  placed; and followed by sustained efforts at gratificationcan not
  only modify an organthat is to say; augment or reduce itbut can
  change its position when the case requires its removal。
  〃Ocean fishes have occasion to see what is on either side of them;
  and have their eyes accordingly placed on either side of their head。
  Some fishes; however; have their abode near coasts on submarine
  banks and inclinations; and are thus forced to flatten themselves as
  much as possible in order to get as near as they can to the shore。
  In this situation they receive more light from above than from
  below; and find it necessary to pay attention to whatever happens to
  be above them; this need has involved the displacement of their
  eyes; which now take the remarkable position which we observe in the
  case of soles; turbots; plaice; &c。  The transfer of position is not
  even yet complete in the case of these fishes; and the eyes are not;
  therefore; symmetrically placed; but they are so with the skate;
  whose head and whole body are equally disposed on either side a
  longitudinal section。  Hence the eyes of this fish are placed
  symmetrically upon the uppermost side。〃Philosophie Zoologique;
  tom。 i。; pp。 250; 251。  Edition C。 Martins。  Paris; 1873。
  {30}  〃Essays on Heredity;〃 &c。; Oxford; 1889; p。 171。
  {31}  〃Essays on Heredity;〃 &c。; Oxford; 1889; p。 266。
  {32}  〃Darwinism;〃 1889; p。 440。
  {33}  Page 83。
  {34}  Vol。 i。 p。 466; &c。  Ed。 1885。
  {35}  〃Darwinism;〃 p。 440。
  {36}  Longmans; 1890。
  {37}  Tom。 iv。 p。 383。  Ed。 1753。
  {38}  Essays; &c。; p。 447。
  {39}  〃Zoonomia;〃 1794; vol。 i。 p。 480。
  {40}  Longmans; 1890。
  {41}  Longmans; 1890。
  {42}  Longmans; 1890。
  {43}  Longmans; 1890。